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聚焦一号文件:金融如何助力农业“供给侧改革”

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年04月19日 04:49:30
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(将)(发)(挥)(举)(足)(轻)(重)(的)(作)(用)(。  农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(具)(有)(时)(代)(意)(义)(和)(现)(实)(意)(义)(  去)(年)(年)(底)(召)(开)(的)(中)(央)(农)(村)(工)(作)(会)(议)(首)(次)(明)(确)(提)(出)(落)(实)(发)(展)(新)(理)(念)(加)(快)(农)(业)(现)(代)(化)(,着)(力)(加)(强)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(。不)(出)(意)(料)(的)(,这)(成)(为)(2016年)(中)(央)(一)(号)(文)(件)(的)(主)(题)(。  中)(国)(人)(民)(大)(学)(重)(阳)(金)(融)(研)(究)(院)(研)(究)(员)(胡)(玉)(玮)(在)(接)(受)(人)(民)(网)(采)(访)(时)(表)(示)(,此)(次)(首)(提)(“推)(进)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(”具)(有)(非)(常)(强)(烈)(的)(时)(代)(意)(义)(和)(现)(实)(意)(义)(。  2015年)(11月)(以)(来)(,“供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(”成)(为)(高)(层)(讲)(话)(中)(的)(高)(频)(词)(。胡)(玉)(玮)(认)(为)(,我)(国)(整)(体)(宏)(观)(管)(理)(经)(济)(政)(策)(正)(处)(调)(整)(期)(,以)(单)(纯)(需)(求)(端)(改)(革)(为)(主)(的)(思)(路)(不)(可)(持)(续)(。农)(业)(作)(为)(三)(大)(产)(业)(中)(非)(常)(重)(要)(的)(一)(环)(,相)(应)(地)(进)(行)(供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(具)(有)(时)(代)(意)(义)(。  “供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(具)(有)(全)(局)(性)(,但)(凡)(是)(产)(能)(过)(剩)(、供)(求)(关)(系)(不)(合)(理)(、政)(府)(管)(制)(过)(多)(、垄)(断)(行)(业)(等)(都)(存)(在)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(的)(需)(求)(。”社)(科)(院)(金)(融)(所)(银)(行)(研)(究)(室)(主)(任)(曾)(刚)(在)(接)(受)(人)(民)(网)(采)(访)(时)(说)(,农)(业)(作)(为)(支)(柱)(产)(业)(,中)(央)(一)(号)(文)(件)(连)(续)(13年)(聚)(焦)(“三)(农)(”问)(题)(,更)(是)(需)(要)(进)(行)(供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(。  同)(时)(,胡)(玉)(玮)(也)(认)(为)(,推)(进)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(也)(具)(有)(非)(常)(强)(烈)(的)(现)(实)(意)(义)(。  “目)(前)(,我)(国)(的)(农)(业)(农)(村)(发)(展)(还)(存)(在)(两)(方)(面)(的)(问)(题)(。一)(方)(面)(是)(粮)(食)(的)(供)(求)(问)(题)(,主)(要)(表)(现)(在)(品)(种)(结)(构)(上)(出)(现)(了)(一)(种)(失)(衡)(的)(局)(面)(,进)(而)(导)(致)(国)(内)(市)(场)(价)(格)(有)(所)(波)(动)(。另)(一)(方)(面)(,由)(于)(我)(国)(农)(民)(数)(量)(较)(多)(但)(土)(地)(较)(少)(,使)(得)(尽)(管)(在)(农)(民)(流)(动)(、土)(地)(流)(转)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,农)(业)(生)(产)(成)(本)(仍)(然)(较)(高)(。”中)(央)(农)(村)(工)(作)(领)(导)(小)(组)(副)(组)(长)(、办)(公)(室)(主)(任)(陈)(锡)(文)(近)(日)(在)(发)(布)(会)(如)(此)(表)(示)(。  曾)(刚)(认)(为)(,“一)(方)(面)(农)(业)(生)(产)(方)(式)(需)(从)(零)(散)(向)(集)(约)(转)(变)(,另)(一)(方)(面)(农)(产)(业)(价)(格)(需)(从)(政)(府)(主)(导)(向)(由)(市)(场)(机)(制)(决)(定)(转)(变)(,决)(定)(了)(农)(业)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(必)(须)(从)(需)(求)(端)(向)(供)(给)(端)(转)(变)(。”  “在)(此)(改)(革)(过)(程)(中)(,农)(村)(的)(资)(金)(需)(求)(缺)(口)(很)(大)(,金)(融)(机)(构)(大)(有)(可)(为)(。”胡)(玉)(玮)(说)(。  金)(融)(撬)(动)(农)(业)(供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(  一)(号)(文)(件)(提)(出)(,要)(推)(动)(金)(融)(资)(源)(更)(多)(地)(向)(农)(村)(倾)(斜)(和)(完)(善)(农)(业)(保)(险)(制)(度)(。值)(得)(一)(提)(的)(是)(,文)(件)(还)(要)(求)(今)(年)(要)(推)(动)(省)(级)(农)(业)(信)(贷)(担)(保)(机)(构)(正)(式)(建)(立)(并)(开)(始)(运)(营)(。  “央)(行)(、财)(政)(部)(等)(监)(管)(部)(门)(的)(政)(策)(非)(常)(有)(效)(地)(引)(导)(了)(资)(金)(向)("三)(农)("领)(域)(的)(倾)(斜)(。”胡)(玉)(玮)(表)(示)(,“2015年)(央)(行)(的)("双)(降)(",特)(别)(是)(定)(向)(降)(准)(,增)(加)(了)(农)(业)(领)(域)(的)(资)(金)(流)(动)(性)(。”  2015年)(短)(短)(一)(年)(内)(,央)(行)(进)(行)(四)(次)(普)(降)(存)(款)(准)(备)(金)(率)(,五)(次)(定)(向)(降)(准)(,五)(次)(降)(息)(,适)(当)(提)(供)(长)(期)(流)(动)(性)(,同)(时)(运)(用)(价)(格)(杠)(杆)(引)(导)(融)(资)(成)(本)(下)(行)(。截)(止)(10月)(24日)(,金)(融)(机)(构)(一)(年)(期)(贷)(款)(基)(准)(利)(率)(下)(调)(0.25个)(百)(分)(点)(至)(4.35%;一)(年)(期)(存)(款)(基)(准)(利)(率)(下)(调)(0.25个)(百)(分)(点)(至)(1.5%。  中)(国)(人)(民)(银)(行)(行)(长)(周)(小)(川)(在)(2016年)(工)(作)(会)(议)(透)(露)(,“2016年)(,央)(行)(将)(继)(续)(运)(用)(抵)(押)(补)(充)(贷)(款)(、中)(期)(借)(贷)(便)(利)(、信)(贷)(政)(策)(支)(持)(再)(贷)(款)(等)(货)(币)(政)(策)(工)(具)(支)(持)(金)(融)(机)(构)(扩)(大)(国)(民)(经)(济)(重)(点)(领)(域)(和)(薄)(弱)(环)(节)(的)(信)(贷)(投)(放)(。”  然)(而)(,在)(实)(际)(情)(况)(中)(,商)(业)(银)(行)(对)(“三)(农)(”的)(支)(持)(存)(在)(不)(敢)(贷)(和)(成)(本)(过)(高)(的)(想)(象)(。  在)(辽)(阳)(灯)(塔)(市)(的)(农)(民)(企)(业)(家)(田)(忠)(信)(看)(来)(,国)(家)(的)(金)(融)(政)(策)(非)(常)(支)(持)(“三)(农)(”发)(展)(,但)(涉)(及)(到)(执)(行)(层)(面)(,却)(常)(常)(让)(他)(感)(到)(不)(便)(:有)(时)(企)(业)(资)(金)(短)(缺)(,去)(商)(业)(银)(行)(办)(理)(一)(笔)(500万)(元)(的)(贷)(款)(却)(需)(要)(半)(年)(才)(能)(到)(账)(。  “三)(农)(金)(融)(的)(痛)(点)(在)(于)(风)(险)(大)(,银)(行)(在)(无)(抵)(押)(无)(担)(保)(的)(前)(提)(下)(,主)(动)(放)(贷)(的)(意)(愿)(不)(大)(。”胡)(玉)(玮)(说)(,将)(金)(融)(机)(构)(的)(逐)(利)(诉)(求)(和)(农)(民)(的)(贷)(款)(诉)(求)(结)(合)(起)(来)(,在)(实)(际)(操)(作)(过)(程)(中)(把)(握)(好)(度)(,才)(能)(使)(政)(府)(、金)(融)(机)(构)(和)(农)(民)(获)(得)(“三)(赢)(”。  在)(福)(建)(闽)(北)(农)(业)(大)(县)(建)(瓯)(,池)(有)(旺)(等)(100多)(户)(农)(户)(,通)(过)(海)(西)(蔬)(果)(茶)(交)(易)(中)(心)(将)(土)(地)(抵)(押)(给)(建)(行)(做)(担)(保)(,每)(人)(获)(得)(了)(30万)(元)(的)(“支)(农)(贷)(”。  建)(行)(福)(建)(分)(行)(副)(行)(长)(丁)(保)(平)(在)(接)(受)(人)(民)(网)(采)(访)(是)(说)(,该)(行)(通)(过)(创)(新)(“土)(地)(合)(作)(社)(+政)(府)(公)(司)(担)(保)(”的)(金)(融)(服)(务)(模)(式)(,对)(农)(林)(公)(司)(推)(荐)(的)(优)(质)(新)(型)(农)(村)(经)(营)(主)(体)(客)(户)(予)(以)(受)(理)(抵)(押)(贷)(款)(。  在)(边)(远)(贫)(困)(地)(区)(,银)(行)(出)(于)(成)(本)(的)(考)(虑)(,设)(立)(的)(网)(点)(相)(对)(较)(少)(。丁)(保)(平)(却)(认)(为)(,这)(些)(地)(区)(的)(农)(民)(对)(电)(子)(银)(行)(、网)(上)(支)(付)(等)(新)(型)(金)(融)(服)(务)(模)(式)(并)(不)(熟)(悉)(,更)(需)(要)(将)(银)(行)(网)(点)(延)(伸)(下)(去)(。数)(据)(显)(示)(,目)(前)(建)(行)(福)(建)(分)(行)(已)(在)(528个)(村)(镇)(设)(立)(了)(784个)(助)(农)(取)(款)(服)(务)(点)(,覆)(盖)(近)(7成)(县)(域)(。  “金)(融)(机)(构)(在)(注)(重)(商)(业)(性)(的)(同)(时)(,也)(要)(兼)(顾)(社)(会)(性)(和)(公)(益)(性)(。”胡)(玉)(玮)(说)(,国)(家)(大)(力)(发)(展)(政)(策)(性)(银)(行)(,是)(开)(展)(普)(惠)(金)(融)(、精)(准)(扶)(贫)(的)(良)(好)(开)(端)(。  继)(去)(年)(中)(央)(一)(号)(文)(件)(对)(国)(家)(开)(发)(银)(行)(、农)(业)(开)(发)(银)(行)(、邮)(政)(储)(蓄)(银)(行)(和)(中)(国)(农)(业)(银)(行)(等)(四)(家)(金)(融)(机)(构)(的)(涉)(农)(金)(融)(业)(务)(进)(行)(部)(署)(后)(,今)(年)(的)(一)(号)(文)(件)(再)(次)(针)(对)(这)(四)(家)(银)(行)(提)(出)(了)(新)(的)(要)(求)(:深)(化)(中)(国)(农)(业)(银)(行)(三)(农)(金)(融)(事)(业)(部)(改)(革)(,加)(大)(“三)(农)(”金)(融)(产)(品)(创)(新)(和)(重)(点)(领)(域)(信)(贷)(投)(入)(力)(度)(。发)(挥)(国)(家)(开)(发)(银)(行)(优)(势)(和)(作)(用)(,加)(强)(服)(务)(“三)(农)(”融)(资)(模)(式)(创)(新)(。强)(化)(中)(国)(农)(业)(发)(展)(银)(行)(政)(策)(性)(职)(能)(,加)(大)(中)(长)(期)(“三)(农)(”信)(贷)(投)(放)(力)(度)(。支)(持)(中)(国)(邮)(政)(储)(蓄)(银)(行)(建)(立)(三)(农)(金)(融)(事)(业)(部)(,打)(造)(专)(业)(化)(为)(农)(服)(务)(体)(系)(。来)(源)(人)(民)(网)(-金)(融)(频)(道)()
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